Nyheder

 

EPPO Reporting Service 2017 no. 9 – General

 

In Spain, an outbreak of Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in Castilla y Leon in May 2017. TSWV was detected in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in one nursery in the municipality of Valencia de Don Juan, province of León (NPPO of Spain, 2017-07). The pest status of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Spain is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned.

 

In Romania, an outbreak of Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) was found in June 2017. TSWV was detected in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) field (660 m²) located in the municipality of Oraşu Geoagiu (Hunedoara county). Phytosanitary measures were taken to eradicate the disease (NPPO of Romania, 2017-06). The pest status of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Romania is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned, under eradication.

 

In Romania, an outbreak of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List) was found in June 2017. The bacterium was detected in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in a glasshouse (800 m²) located in Bârcea Mare, Hunedoara county. It is suspected that the bacterium has been introduced into this glasshouse via infected tomato seeds whose origin could not be ascertained. Phytosanitary measures were taken to eradicate the disease. The pest status of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Romania is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned, under eradication.

 

In Estonia, an outbreak of Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) was found in June 2017 during an official survey. Live cysts were identified in 5 soil samples which had been collected from a seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production site (2 ha) in the village of Paunküla (Harju county). The identity of the nematode was confirmed by morphological and molecular (PCR) methods. On the infested site, it will be prohibited to grow seed potatoes and only the production of ware potatoes of resistant varieties will be allowed and all equipment used will have to be disinfected. These measures will be applied until 2023 (NPPO of Estonia, 2017). The pest status of Globodera rostochiensis in Estonia is officially declared as: Present, under eradication.

 

In Finland, an outbreak of Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) was reported in February 2017. The nematode was identified in soil samples from a potato (Solanum tuberosum) field (1 ha) located in the municipality of Säkylä (Satakunta region). Phytosanitary measures are being implemented to eradicate the pest (NPPO of Finland, 2017). The pest status of Globodera rostochiensis in Finland is officially declared as: Present, under eradication.

 

In Luxembourg, an outbreak of Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) was reported in February 2017. The nematode was identified in soil samples from a potato (Solanum tuberosum) field (approximately 10 ha). Phytosanitary measures are being implemented to eradicate the pest (NPPO of Luxembourg, 2017). The pest status of Globodera rostochiensis in Luxembourg is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned.

 

In Germany, Thrips setosus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO Alert List) was first found in 2015 on Hydrangea plants grown for cut flower production near Hamburg. In 2016, further findings were made in Baden-Württemberg. In 2017, an outbreak was reported on Hydrangea pot plants in a greenhouse of a nursery in North Rhine Westphalia. All infested plants and those belonging to the same lot were immediately destroyed. The production site concerned was then surveyed but no further infestation was found. The pest status of Thrips setosus in Germany is officially declared as: Present, few occurrences, not confirmed by survey, only in some parts of the Member State concerned.

In Romania, an outbreak of Xanthomonas axonopodis subsp. vesicatoria (EPPO A2 List) was found in June 2017. The bacterium was detected in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in a glasshouse (400 m²) located in Brănişca, Hunedoara county. Phytosanitary measures were taken to eradicate the disease.

2017/160 First report of Popillia japonica in Switzerland

In Switzerland, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae - EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in June 2017 in Ticino during an official survey. In 2017-07-21, the first 3 adult specimens were caught in a pheromone trap located near the border with Italy, and only a few kilometres away from the demarcated area of an outbreak detected in 2014 in Italy (Ticino Valley Natural Park, Lombardia and Piemonte regions). As of 2017-07-21, a total of 18 adult beetles were caught in this single trap and P. japonica has not been found in other sites so far. It is noted that the most probable source of this introduction results from the natural spread of the P. japonica population which is established in the Ticino Valley Natural Park in Italy. Phytosanitary measures have immediately been implemented and include the intensification of the surveillance programme in the region, an inventory of potential hotspots, the continuation of a public awareness raising campaign, and the circulation of pest-specific information to farmers and producers. In addition, a research project has been initiated by the federal agricultural research institute (Agroscope) to identify strains of entomopathogenic fungi which could be used against P. japonica. The pest status of Popillia japonica in Switzerland is officially declared as: Transient, the pest has not been detected outside of the specified pheromone trap on Swiss territory so far, actionable, under eradication

Source: NPPO of Switzerland (2017-06).

Pictures: Popillia japonica. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/POPIJA/photos

Additional key words: new record Computer codes: POPIJA, CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017/160 First report of Popillia japonica in Switzerland

In Switzerland, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae - EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in June 2017 in Ticino during an official survey. In 2017-07-21, the first 3 adult specimens were caught in a pheromone trap located near the border with Italy, and only a few kilometres away from the demarcated area of an outbreak detected in 2014 in Italy (Ticino Valley Natural Park, Lombardia and Piemonte regions). As of 2017-07-21, a total of 18 adult beetles were caught in this single trap and P. japonica has not been found in other sites so far. It is noted that the most probable source of this introduction results from the natural spread of the P. japonica population which is established in the Ticino Valley Natural Park in Italy. Phytosanitary measures have immediately been implemented and include the intensification of the surveillance programme in the region, an inventory of potential hotspots, the continuation of a public awareness raising campaign, and the circulation of pest-specific information to farmers and producers. In addition, a research project has been initiated by the federal agricultural research institute (Agroscope) to identify strains of entomopathogenic fungi which could be used against P. japonica. The pest status of Popillia japonica in Switzerland is officially declared as: Transient, the pest has not been detected outside of the specified pheromone trap on Swiss territory so far, actionable, under eradication

Source: NPPO of Switzerland (2017-06).

Pictures: Popillia japonica. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/POPIJA/photos

Additional key words: new record Computer codes: POPIJA, CH

 

 

 

First report of Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causing lesions and cankers of sweet chestnut in the United Kingdom.

 

In late summer 2016 cankers and shoot dieback were detected on a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) tree during a survey for chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parastica) in southeast England. The tree was part of a two-year-old amenity planting scheme. Samples of the affected shoots were sent to the Tree Health Diagnostic and Advisory Service at Forest Research for examination. A fungus grew consistently from the affected tissues and growing colonies were transferred to 2% potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated further.

 

Source: Lewis A, Gorton C, Rees H, Webber J, Pérez-Sierra A, 2017. First report of Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causing lesions and cankers of sweet chestnut in the United Kingdom. New Disease Reports 35, 20. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2017.035.020]

©2017 The Authors

 

First report of Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus in The Netherlands.

 

Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a nanovirus that was first detected in pea crops (Pisum sativum) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany in 2009 (Grigoras et al., 2010). In 2016, PNYDV was detected countrywide in both Germany and Austria not only on pea but also on faba bean (Vicia faba), vetch (V. sativa) and lentil (Lens culinaris) causing severe yield losses (Gaafar et al., 2016).

During a routine survey of twelve green pea crops in the Province of Flevoland (The Netherlands), plants with virus-like symptoms were noticed. Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) was confirmed by PCR.

This is the first report of PNYDV in The Netherlands. This indicates that nanoviruses are far more spread throughout Europe than previously thought (Grigoras et al., 2014). As PNYDV is aphid-transmitted in a circulative, non-propagative manner, it is expected that more nanovirus diseases will occur in the future as changes in climatic conditions (especially milder winters in Central Europe) favour aphid survival thus facilitating the spread of these viruses (Ziebell, 2017).

 

Source: New Disease Reports 35, 23. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2017.035.023]

©2017 The Authors

 

 

First report of Thrips setosus in Germany

 

In Germany, Thrips setosus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in 2015 on Hydrangea plants grown for cut flower production by the official plant health service of Hamburg. In 2016, further findings were reported in Baden-Württemberg. A specific survey for T. setosus will be included in the 2017 national monitoring programme.

The pest status of Thrips setosus in Germany is officially declared as: Present, few occurrences, not yet confirmed by survey.

Source: EPPO Reporting Service 2017 no. 1

Pictures:

Thrips setosus. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/THRISE/photos

 

Isolated finding of Potato spindle tuber viroid in potato breeding material in the Netherlands

 

The NPPO of the Netherlands recently informed the EPPO Secretariat that Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid, PSTVd – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in potato (Solanum tuberosum) breeding material. During official surveys, PSTVd was detected in one potato genotype. Symptoms (growth cracks) were observed on tubers of infected plants. The infected genotype had been imported from Northern Ireland in 2016. All other genotypes cultivated in the same fields tested negative for PSTVd, but a second negative test will be required before this material can be used for further breeding purposes.

It is also noted that no direct links exist between the infected genotype and commercially available potato cultivars.

The pest status of Potato spindle tuber viroid in the Netherlands is officially declared as:

Outbreak in potato breeding material (S. tuberosum) in August 2016, under eradication.

Outbreak in C. annuum in 2016, under eradication. Transient in ornamentals (S. jasminoides).

One outbreak in Dahlia sp. in 2013, eradicated.

Incidental finding in tomato (S. lycopersicum) fruit production in 2013, eradicated.2016/175

Source: EPPO Reporting Service 2016 no. 9 –Diseases

Pictures:

Potato spindle tuber viroid. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PSTVD0/photos

 

First confirmed report of Potato spindle tuber viroid in Poland

 

In 2016, PSTVd was detected in 2 lots of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cvs. ‘Etola’ and ‘Denar’). The first case was detected in Melanowo (district of Kamień Krajeński, Kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeship), and the surface of the infected area was estimated at 2.8 ha. The second case was found in Turzyn (district of Nakło, Kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeship), with an estimated infected area of 5 ha. In both cases, the identity of the viroid was confirmed by molecular methods (RT-PCRs using different types of primers, sequencing). Official phytosanitary measures have been implemented in delimited areas corresponding to the whole surface of the 2 places of production (22 ha in the first case and 10.56 ha in the second one). All infected and possibly infected potatoes will be used for industrial purposes (distillery). On infected fields, plantation of potatoes or any other host plants of PSTVd will be prohibited until the end of 2017; volunteer potato plants and other naturally occurring host plants of PSTVd will be eliminated. In 2018, only the cultivation of ware or industrial potatoes will be allowed, and potato harvest will be subject to official sampling and testing. On the infected production sites, all equipment and stores will be disinfected, and surveys will continue.

The pest status of Potato spindle tuber viroid in Poland is officially declared as: Present, at low prevalence.

Source: EPPO Reporting Service 2016 no. 9 –Diseases

 

Phytophthora ramorum found again in the Czech Republic

 

P. ramorum has occasionally been reported in the Czech Republic, in relation with imports of ornamental shrubs from other EU countries, but in all cases eradication measures have been applied. During an official specific survey for P. ramorum, suspicious symptoms were observed in September 2015 on several Rhododendron plants in one garden centre located in the municipality of Dlouhá Loučka (Olomouc district, Olomouc region). Laboratory tests (PCR with specific primers) confirmed the identity of P. ramorum. Diseased plants belonged to a consignment that had been delivered in 2014 from Poland. The whole lot (11 plants of evergreen Rhododendron spp.) were showing symptoms of leaf and twig blight. As these plants had been kept in the garden centre for about one year before the symptoms were detected upon inspection, the source of this infection remains unclear. However, it is noted that P. ramorum has not been found in this garden centre or in its vicinity before. In accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/757/EC, the 11 infected Rhododendron spp. plants, as well as 23 plants of deciduous Rhododendron spp. (azaleas) located within a radius of 2 m (or more) have been destroyed. Surveys will continue in the outdoor part of the garden centre (approximately 800 m²) on potentially susceptible host plants.

The official pest status of Phytophthora ramorum in the Czech Republic is officially declared as: Transient: actionable, under eradication.

Source: EPPO Reporting Service 2016 no. 9 –Diseases

 

First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus causing flower breaking and vein clearing in Hydrangea macrophylla in Germany.

 

In May 2013, an unknown disease was observed in hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) in a nursery in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Symptoms observed consisted of flower breaking and vein clearing/banding. Hydrangea, native to Japan, is a deciduous shrub which is mainly used in landscaping as bedding plant or at borders. Many cultivars are of economic importance mainly due to the decorative flowers.

 

Examination of leaf dip extracts by electron microscopy showed the presence of bullet-shaped and filamentous virions resembling those of rhabdoviruses and potexviruses, respectively. The potexvirus was identified as an isolate of Hydrangea ringspot virus (HdRSV), a virus commonly found in hydrangea. However, the symptoms observed were not previously associated with the presence of HdRSV, which usually causes ring- or chlorotic spots on leaves or remains symptomless.

 

 

Kilde: New Disease Reports (2016) 34, 11. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.011]

 

 

First report of Potato spindle tuber viroid in vegetatively propagated plants of Capsicum annuum in

the Netherlands.

 

 

Over recent decades Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd, genus Pospiviroid) has been found in increasingly various crops. It may cause severe diseases in potato and tomato crops but usually occurs as symptomless infections in ornamental species (Verhoeven et al., 2010). Pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been reported to show mild symptoms (Lebas et al., 2005). In 2016 a breeding company informed the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the Netherlands on the suspicion of PSTVd infections in four seedless pepper selections that had been propagated vegetatively. The suspected plants had been produced by a Dutch nursery that had imported the planting material from Israel. In the Netherlands, the plants were grown at four locations: two greenhouses of the same nursery at two locations (598 plants), a greenhouse for fruit production (1,616 plants) and another for demonstration purposes (100 plants) (EPPO, 2016). Within the four locations, plant age varied from young plants that had just been grafted to plants starting fruit production. In none of the pepper plants were any symptoms observed.

 

New Disease Reports (2016) 34, 12. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.012]

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Ralstonia solanacearum found in Solanum melongena in the Netherlands

 

Plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 (EPPO A2 List) was found in a glasshouse producing fruit of Solanum melongena (aubergine) located in the municipality of Westland, province of South Holland. Affected plants showed wilting symptoms. Brown discoloration of the vessels could also be observed on stems.

The identity of the bacterium was confirmed in June 2016. In the glasshouse concerned (5700 m²), it is estimated that 675 out of the 3 980 plants of S. melongena (covering 480 m²) were infected by R. solanacearum.

For the moment the origin of this infection is still unknown. This is the first time that R. solanacearum is detected on S. melongena in the Netherlands.

The pest status of Ralstonia solanacearum in the Netherlands is officially declared as:

in potato production chain: transient, incidental findings, under eradication;

in natural environment (surface water): present;

in Pelargonium: eradicated;

in Solanum melongena plants: transient: actionable, under eradication.

Source:

EPPO Reporting Service

First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi in Finland

The first finding of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi (formerly EPPO Alert List) on dying horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastaneum) in the Tokoinranta park in summer 2015 and in the Sibeliuspuisto park in summer 2016. In both places, bleeding symptoms on the trunks could be observed. Wood and bark samples were taken to the laboratory for diagnosis (isolation, PCR, sequencing). Results confirmed the presence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi in diseased trees. The origin of the bacterium and its pathway of introduction into Finland are unknown. This is the first time that Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi is reported from Finland. No official measures have been taken but all symptomatic trees have been cut down by the construction service of the city of Helsinki.

 

2016/138 Update on the situation of Dothistroma septosporum in Germany

Dothistroma septosporum (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella pini – EU Annexes) was detected in new areas during 2015 and 2016 in Brandenburg.

Symptoms of red-band needle blight were observed in the botanical garden and arboretum of Eberswalde on 9 pine (Pinus spp.) trees. These trees had been planted in 2003, and were 3-5 m high and approximately 15-20 years old. The first symptoms were first noticed in April 2015. Samples were taken from 2 symptomatic trees (P. jeffreyi, P. ponderosa)

Diseases and the identity of D. septosporum was confirmed in January 2016 on the basis of its morphological characteristics. The source of this outbreak is unknown. Official phytosanitary measures will be taken to eradicate the disease (destruction of infected trees) and further surveys will be carried out in the area concerned and in nurseries located nearby.

D. septosporum was detected in a private garden located in Schwarzenbek (district of Herzogtum Lauenburg) on 1 large bonsai tree (Pinus sylvestris ‘Watereri’) which had been planted in 1999. The owner had sent a sample for diagnosis to the Plant Protection Service of Hamburg in June 2015. The identity of the fungus was confirmed in July 2015 on the basis of its morphological characteristics. The source of this outbreak is unknown. Infected needles were removed and a fungicide treatment was applied. Further phytosanitary inspections will be carried out in 2016.

The pest status of Dothistroma septosporum in Germany is officially declared as: Present, few occurrences.

 

 

2016/120 Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus detected in Finland

The NPPO of Finland recently informed the EPPO Secretariat that Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (EPPO A2 List) has been found in ware potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cvs. ‘Asterix’ and ‘Annabelle’) in 2 farms. It is estimated that the infected area covers 1.94 ha. The origin of this infection is not known. Phytosanitary measures have been applied in accordance with EU Directive 93/85/EC (amended by EU Directive 2006/56/EC). On the infected farms, all potato fields have been inspected and no further findings have been made.

The pest status of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus in Finland is officially declared as: Present, under eradication.

Source:

NPPO of Finland (2016-06).

Pictures

C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/CORBSE/photos

 

 

 

 

 

2016/117 First report of damage to potato crops caused by Meloidogyne incognita in Serbia

 

In 2014, a potato (Solanum tuberosum var. ‘Kuroda’) crop exhibiting 70% galling of tubers was observed in Bački Vinogradi, Vojvodina Province, Serbia. Potatoes had been grown every year for 5 years on this 1-ha site of sandy soil (tomatoes had been grown on this plot before that). In 2014, yield losses of approximately 20 tonnes/ha were observed for the first time at this location. Yield loss was due to the presence of an unknown root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.). Affected tubers showed external galling and internal necrosis just below the skin. Adult females were visible just below the surface as white, pear-shaped bodies surrounded by a yellowish layer of host tissue. However, despite heavy tuber infestation no symptoms of stunting and wilting were observed on the aerial part of potato plants. Diagnosis (morphology, molecular methods) confirmed the presence of Meloidogyne incognita. It is noted that during a survey carried out in the 1980s, M. incognita had been reported in glasshouse crops (cucumbers, carnations, tomatoes) and in field-grown tomatoes and capsicum. Damage caused by M. incognita had been reported on field-grown sunflower and tobacco plants but never on potato. It is supposed that the conditions prevailing in the infested area, such as sandy soils and warmer summers might explain the severity of damage observed on this potato crop. The authors concluded that climate change with increased temperatures might favour the emergence of M. incognita in the Balkan Peninsula and other temperate regions of the world.

Source:

Bačić J, Gerič Stare B, Strajnar P, Širca S, Urek G (2016) First report of a highly damaged potato crop from Serbia caused by Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Disease 100(5), p 1021.

 

2016/116 Anoplophora glabripennis detected again in Germany

 

The NPPO of Germany recently informed the EPPO Secreatariat of a new finding of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO A1 List) in Bayern (see also EPPO RS 2016/031, 2014/184). In April 2016, during a visual inspection targeting wood packaging material (carrying stones) in the harbour of Kelheim, bore holes and wood shavings were noticed by a phytosanitary inspector on a nearby maple (Acer sp.) tree. Further investigations were carried out and living larvae of A. glabripennis were found in 6 maple trees. These trees were heavily infested and had dead branches (some of these had already broken off). The identity of the pest has been confirmed by PCR. In addition, 12 other maple trees showing signs of infestation (e.g. bore holes, shavings and oviposition sites) were found and will be subject to further studies in the laboratory. The origin of this infestation is unknown but import of infested wood packing material is the most likely pathway. An intensive monitoring of all host plants (i.e. Acer, Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Populus, Prunus, Salix, Sorbus, Tilia, Ulmus) located within a radius of 500 m around the infested site is being conducted. Eradication measures are being taken and all infested trees (18 in total) have been felled.

The pest status of Anoplophora glabripennis in Germany is officially declared as: Transient, only at some locations, actionable, under eradication.

 

Den 20.11.2015

 

In September 2015, Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List) was detected in the Netherlands at a 3 glasshouse companies producing Rosa cut flowers, located in the municipality of Westland. Unusual symptoms had been noticed by the growers. Black discoloration and necrosis of stems, as well as chlorotic and wilting leaves were observed on several plants. In the 3 companies concerned, all affected lots have been destroyed. The origin of the outbreaks on Rosa remains unknown.

 

Den 03.10.2015

 

First report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on carrots in Germany

 

In September 2014, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (the potato haplotypes are listed in EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time in commercial carrot (Daucus carota) fields in Niedersachsen, Germany. These fields were also infested by the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis, and the infection rate was about 50% symptomatic plants/field. Symptoms included leaf curling, yellow and purple discoloration of leaves, stunted growth of shoots and roots, and proliferation of secondary roots.

 

In Norway, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (EPPO A1 List – Solanaceae haplotypes) was detected for the first time in 2011 on carrots (Daucus carota, Apiaceae) in the Southeastern part of the country (see EPPO RS 2012/120). This bacterium is transmitted by the carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis.

 

Phytophthora alni

 

Since 1993, a new disease of alder trees (Alnus glutinosa) has been spreading across Europe (Brasieret al,2004). The causal agent is an incipient species probably resulting from hybridization between Phytophthora cambivora and an unknown Phytophthora closely related to Phytophthora fragariae (Brasieret al,2004). Its taxonomic status has been resolved by erecting the species Phytophthora alni, with several subspecies differing mainly in their karyotype, gametangial morphology and aggressiveness towards alder (Brasieret al,2004).

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